I’ve previously talked about how files are stored as binary and briefly touched on how those bits are interpreted via an encoding. In this post I’d like to dig into that process a little further, specifically focusing on Unicode files encoded in UTF-8.

Background: a very brief introduction to Unicode.

Note: if you understand Unicode, or you just don’t care, feel free to skip this section.

Early computers used a character set called ASCII, which used the numbers 0-127 to represent both readable (e.g. A and non-readable “carriage return”) characters. This worked wonderfully in small, North American context, but was woefully inadequate in terms of meeting global linguistic needs. Various competing extensions to ASCII were created to handle characters from different languages, but this led to compatibility issues and confusion when exchanging text in different encodings.

Unicode attempts to solve this problem by providing one giant character set for all languages and fields (e.g. mathematics, or emoji). It is the current industry standard, but there are still plenty of flavors of character sets in the wild for historical, human reasons.

Each character in Unicode is represented by a “Code Point”, which is a number that can be used to represent that character, and retrieve it, from the Unicode character set. This number can be represented in 8 or more bits, depending on how large it is. As note earlier, ASCII is a subset of Unicode that takes up the first 256 (since it uses an extended ASCII set) code points.

See the “more information” section at the bottom for some additional resources if you are interested in knowing more. There’s a lot more to be said on the subject.

Getting started

Let’s create a simple file with some text, similar to the one in the binary post:

echo "hi" > hello.txt

And now let’s take a look at how a computer sees that data:

$ xxd hello.txt
00000000: 6869 0a                                  hi.

Great! And now let’s look that up in our handy Unicode table.com/en/search/?q=i). We see that the hex 68, which corresponds to h and hex 69, which corresponds to i, is capped off by 0a which is the newline character.

Now for something more interesting:

$ echo "🙃" > emoji.txt
$ xxd emoji.txt

00000000: f09f 9983 0a                             

# grab our bits with -b
$ xxd -b emoji.txt
00000000: 11110000 10011111 10011001 10000011 00001010

Whoah, that’s a good deal of hex and a lot of bits!

Let’s plug those hex numbers (excluding the 0a newline) into a unicode lookup:

⛿ - White Flag with Horizontal Middle Black Stripe
馃 - Ideograph cakes, biscuits, pastry CJK

Hmm. That didn’t quite go according to plan.

What is going on? Well, unfortunately, our first example hi benefited from the fact that UTF8 is backward compatible with ASCII, so 8 bit ASCII character is a valid Unicode code point. Things get more complicated when we move beyond ASCII territory.

Plane talk

All Unicode code points live on a “plane”, which function similar to pages in a reference book; to look up our character we first need to know which plane it lives on; once we know the plane, we can plug in the codepoint to retrieve it. Our earlier hi example, along with a lot of “basic” language characters lives on the “Basic multilingual plane”. Because of this, and it’s position within the ASCII portion, we could simply use the hex representation for each 8-bit character as the Unicode codepoint.

Our Emoji, however, lives on the “Supplementary Multilingual Plane”. To figure out the character our hex/bits point to, we need to do some sleuthing to find the Unicode codepoint that corresponds to our bits.

Getting to the (code) point

Bits are just 0s and 1s unless we know how to decode them. Fortunately, we know our file is in UTF8. UTF8 is a variable-width encoding format, which means that characters can take up one to four bytes, which saves valuable space for smaller codepoints (e.g. ASCII). This is in contrast to a format like UTF32 which encodes each character in 32 bits, regardless of its size; e.g. h becomes 0000 0000 1001 1001 instead of 1101 000. Unfortunately, unlike UTF32, we cannot take the bits at face value and we need to do some inspection to get the codepoint they correspond to (See this SO post for a detailed explanation).

The UTF8 spec gives us an indication of how to process UTF8 encoded bits. We will ignore the ending non-breaking space, leaving us with four bits which we can break into “signaling” portions (e.g. required by the UTF8) and “code bit” portions (that specify which Unicode character we are dealing with)

"signaling" bits| code bits
----------------|---
11110             000
10                011111
10                011001
10                000011

If we remove the “signaling” bits and format the code bits we get:

code bits
---
000 
011111 
011001
000011

or 000011111011001000011 which happens to be 1F643 in hex. If we look up 1F643 in a unicode table we’ll see a familiar upside-down smiley face. We’ve just cracked the code, huzzah!

Beyond UTF8

We’ve just covered a single encoding here but a similar principle applies to all encodings. The encoding specification tells us how to interpret bits that compose whatever input our program is handed (a file, HTTP request, or mouse click). Those pieces are the building blocks to encode/decode anything we can think of.

If you want to cut your teeth on writing your own encoder/decoder, there are plenty of specifications openly available. For example, the png spec specifies how to marshall binary data into a PNG. Be warned that this is not always an easy task :)

Additional information

There is a lot more to be said about Unicode, UTF8, and encoding in general. This article pulls from a few different sources, and if you’d like to learn more I’d suggest checking them out: